Introduction to Diabetes:
Diabetes mellitus, simply diabetes means a metabolic condition in which blood glucose level is abnormal or not balanced.
It's a metabolic disease in which the glucose level in our blood is abnormally high due to low-level insulin metabolic hormone excreted from normal pancreatic cell insulin that regulates the level of glucose in our blood to a specific range.
On the other hand, Diabetes insipidus is a disease that generally results in increased excess urination and is related to kidney and blood pressure.
Blood sugar level:
Sugar or glucose is a basic form of carbohydrates we use in our daily routine as a part of an energy reservoir. When these simple sugars get absorbed into our blood they provide energy to our body for normal functioning.
Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by its beta-cell. Insulin moves glucose from the blood into the cell after the cell glucose changed into energy. ATP is the energy reservoir of our body.
If enough insulin is not producing in our body glucose would be transported into cells that tissue remains in the blood resulting in a higher-level form of glucose in the blood
Type of Diabetes:
Generally, there are two main types of diabetes
In type 1 diabetes the body's immune system attacks beta cells of the pancreas from which 80-90% are temporarily or permanently damaged results in low levels of insulin.
Type 2 diabetes is known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes in which the pancreas makes normals insulin more than a normal level of insulin. But the body develops a unique type of resistance to this insulin resulting in elevations of glucose in our blood and gradually decreasing the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin. It generally runs in families and certain metabolic conditions such as obesity.
Symptoms of Diabetes mellitus:
The symptoms of diabetes mellitus
- increased thirst
- increased urination
- increased hunger
- Blurred vision
- nausea and drowsiness
Other complications of diabetes :
- Diabetes can also damage blood vessels resulting in restricted blood flow that can be resulted in complications.
- Brain causing stroke
- heart causing a heart attack
- kidney causing chronic kidney disease
- In nerves causing a decrease sensation in feet.
Diagnosis tests for diabetes mellitus:
A general tool for measuring the blood glucose level is an automatic glucometer which gives precise blood glucose level determination.
Other methods for diabetes diagnosis are:
- Hemoglobin a1c level measurement
- oral glucose tolerance test
- screening for diabetes
A1c Test :
This test measures the average blood glucose levels over the past 2 to 3 months.
The Normal value of this test is 5.7% to between 6.4%.
If it is higher this indicates you have diabetes.
Oral glucose tolerance test for diabetes:
This test determines the blood sugar after overnight fast its normal range is 99mg\dL lower than this indicate a Normal glucose level.
Higher than this indicate that you are diabetic.
Treatment of diabetes mellitus:
Treatment of diabetes mellitus generally includes
- Proper diet
- Timely exercise
- weight loss
- in Type 1 insulin-dependent type of diabetes insulin injections are used.
- In type 2 many drugs for lowering Glucose levels are used for example metformin, Glimepiride.